In Review
First Week of January 1872-2002

140 Years Ago (1872):  Married:  On Christmas evening at the residence of the bride’s father, Mr. James
Snashall, by Rev. J. B. Hutton, Mr. J. F. Phifer and Miss Mary A. Snashall.  A very pleasant part of the nuptial
festivities was a beautiful family Christmas Tree ladened with nice presents in which the bride and bridegroom
largely shared.

130 Years Ago (1882):  Chas. H. Wilder, at the Pioneer Yard, is preparing for a large lumber trade the coming
year.  He has received during the month of Dec. fifty-six car loads, over half a million feet.  He says a large
quantity bought before the rise last season is yet to come.  His teams commenced the new year yesterday hauling
the lumber for Albert Francisco’s building, which will use over 25,000 feet.

120 Years Ago (1892):  Passengers occupying the rear coach of the St. Paul limited on Thursday night were
thrown into excitement soon after the train passed Fellows station for Janesville.  There was a flash of powder, a
loud report, and then the rattle of broken glass.  Some evil disposed person had fired into the train.  B. S. Hoxie of
this city was a passenger in the coach, and at the time was looking out of the window.  It was dark and
consequently all he saw was the flash, which he says was not more than six feet from the car.  The ball struck the
window casing just in front of Mr. Hoxie, shivering the glass and narrowly missing the head of a passenger
occupying the seat.  Just what the murderous ruffian intended is not known, but it was certainly a narrow escape
for at least one of the innocent passengers.

110 Years Ago (1902):  A very quiet but pretty wedding took place in this city on New Year’s Day 1902, at 4:00 p.
m. it being the marriage of Mrs. Elizabeth E. Griswold of this city and Dr. Edwin L. Cary of Whitewater.  The
marriage took place at the home of the bride’s father, Dr. J. M. Evans, Sr.  Rev. Smith of Whitewater spoke the
solemn words that cemented together two hearts in the holy bonds of matrimony.  None but immediate relatives
and a few life long friends witnessed the ceremony.  The bride is one of Evansville foremost ladies in church,
lodge work and society gatherings and will be greatly missed in each.  The groom is one of the leading physicians
of Whitewater.

100 Years Ago (1912):  William Hatfield has sold his farm of 170acres two miles west of town to Aug. Ringhand of
Brooklyn.  The price it is understood being $120 per acre.  Mr. Ringhand bought of the tenant, Clarence Roberts,
his teams, tools and half of grain and stock and took immediate possession.

90 Years Ago (1922):  At their annual meeting, Harry McKinney Post, No. 3 elected officers for the ensuing year
as follows:  Post Commander, Joe Straka; vice Post Commander, Elizie Ten Eyke; Adjutant, Fred Graves; Chaplin,
James Thompson; Historian, Ed Butts; Treasurer, P. D. Pearsall; Trustee, Dr. Fogo.  There were about thirty-five
members present, and at the conclusion of the meeting a nice luncheon was given the boys of the post by the
ladies of the Auxiliary and a pleasant time was had.

80 Years Ago (1932):  A book of poems entitled, “Rosmary and Rue” written by the late Mrs. Mabel Ames Wastie,
former Evansville resident and niece of Mrs. J. E. Montgomery, 113 West Church Street, has been placed on the
shelves in the Eager Free Public library here, it was announced by Miss Mae Phillips, city librarian.  The volume,
which was just printed by the Antes Press, will interest many Evansville readers.  Mrs. Wastie was well known here
and was graduated from the local high school with the class of 1901.  

70 Years Ago (1942):  Mrs. Alvina Krause, 61, resident of this community for the past 47 years, died suddenly of a
heart attack early Christmas morning at the home of her son-in-law and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Elmer, four
miles northwest of this city.  Mrs. Krause, formerly Miss Alvina Golz, daughter of the late William and Louise
Schallow Golz, was born in Germany, November 10, 1880.  At the age of 14, she came to America with her family,
settling west of this city where she attended rural school and was married to August Krause on October 13, 1898.  
Mr. Krause died January 29, 1921 and a son Lester, also preceded his mother in death.  The deceased is
survived by five sons, Floyd, Erwin, Orrie and Delbert Krause, Evansville, and Verne Krause, Cainville; four
daughters, Mrs. Henry Elmer and Mrs. Arthur Lange, Evansville, Mrs. Casper Elmer, Brooklyn, and Mrs. Albert
Pagel, Janesville; twenty-three grandchildren; two sisters, Mrs. Fred Beyer, Cainville; and Mrs. John Loeffel,
Monticello; and three brothers, Elmer and John Golz, Evansville and William Golz, Wisconsin Dells.

60 Years Ago (1952):  News of Servicemen:  Pvt. Irvin Parsons, who is stationed at Ft. Belvoir, Va., spent an eight
day furlough with his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Louis Parsons and other relatives and friends during the holidays.  
Pvt. Byrl L. Rowley, son of Mr. and Mrs. Byrl Rowley, enlisted in the air corps.  Donald Biely has been promoted to
the rank of corporal in the armed forces.  Pvt. Richard Barnard, who is stationed at Ft. Knox, Ky., spent last week
here with his parents, Mr. and Mrs. Lee Barnard and other relatives and friends.  Pvt. Roger Disch was expected
home Monday from Camp Lejune, North Carolina for several days furlough.

50 Years Ago (1962):   Mrs. Roscoe Haynes had about 30 evening grosbeaks visit their feeders from Dec. 20
through the Christmas holidays.  On December 23, the day of the national bird count, she had 3 mourning doves,
several juncos, red breasted nuthatches, cardinals, white-throated sparrows and other species in their yard.  The
birds are being well fed in Evansville this winter.  A drive around town will show many feeders and suet baskets
patronized by the feathered set.

40 Years Ago (1972):  With two weeks still remaining to file as a candidate for city offices, a three-way race
already is building up here for the position of mayor.  For the fourth time incumbent Ida T. Conroy will be
challenged by Wilson Brown in the bid for the position of mayor, but this time they will be joined by Francis Erbs
who also is circulating papers for the top post.  Brown served as mayor of Evansville for three terms until 1966
when he was dethroned by Mrs. Conroy in her first bid for this office, capturing it by a 38-vote margin.  In 1968 the
two again were rivals in a vote that retained Mrs. Conroy in office by 100 votes over Brown.  The election of 1970
saw Brown losing to Mrs. Conroy by a slim 31 votes.

30 Years Ago (1982):  Snowstorm Number 9 dealt Evansville and the Midwest a mighty punch late Sunday night
and into Monday.  Howling northwest winds kept blowing the falling snow into drifts, making travel next to
impossible.  Schools all over the area were closed, as well as many businesses.  The snow arrived on New Year’s
Eve day and dumped a good bit of snow on Evansville and kept people at home.  On Sunday we were blessed
with a few hours of sunshine before the snow began falling again.  According to the local forecast there are 33
snows yet to come.

20 Years Ago (1992):  Glenn Markwart who is employed at Varco-Pruden is restoring an old home on First and
Highland.  The tower is new but it adds a very old look.  [The restored house is at 349 South First.]

10 years ago (2002):  The 18th annual Evansville Gun Show will be hosted by the Evansville Firefighters on
January 11, 12, 13, 2002.  The show will be held at the Red Barn.

In Review
Second Week of January 1872-2002

140 Years Ago (1872):  Mr. James Snashall was attacked with a fit of paralytic apoplexy Monday morning.  He was
found in an insensible condition in his barn, was taken to his house and had Dr. Evans summoned.  We
understand he is in a fair way of recovery.

130 Years Ago (1882):  Married.  At the Free Baptist parsonage, Evansville, Wis., Dec. 28. 1881, by Rev. F. M.
Washburn, Chas. L. Hatfield of Union, Rock co., Wis., and Miss Alice e. Shaw, of Brooklyn, Green Co., Wis.

120 Years Ago (1892):  The mysterious shooting into the St. Paul limited as it was passing Fellows station, has
been explained.  The limited carries mail from Evansville to Janesville and as the trains do not stop at that station,
the “catcher” is suppose to do duty.  On this night the bag was hung on the projecting army but the arm that
swung out from the mail car missed its grasp.  A window on the second coach was struck by the bag, the lock
crushing the glass and tearing away a piece of the window casing leaving the splinters sticking into the bag.  The
flash that frightened passengers mistook for a rifle shot was the momentary gleam of Postmaster Whitmore’s
lantern.  Mr. Whitmore was not a little surprised when he read the blood curdling adventure in the paper.

110 Years Ago (1902):  Mrs. Quincy J. Ames returned to his home in Brooklyn Monday noon, after a short visit
with friends in this city.  Mr. Ames expects to take his departure for the Philippine Islands about the first of
February, where he has a position as government stenographer and typewriter.  He will be remembered as a
former graduate from the Evansville Seminary.

100 Years Ago (1912):  Articles of incorporation have been filed in the office of the Secretary of State at Madison
for the organization of the Frost Engine Co. of this city, the incorporators being, Frank L. Frost, W. H. H. Johnson,
C. J. Pearsall, William B. Meggott, A. E. Durner, T. C. Richardson and Geo. L. Pullen.  The capital stock will be
$20,000.

90 Years Ago (1922):  J. S. Baker left Sunday for Cuba, where he will spend several weeks.  On the way, he will
stop at Rockford, where he will visit relatives and again stop at Kansas City, Going to New Orleans, from there he
will take a vessel for Havanna.

80 Years Ago (1932):  Plans have been completed for the organization of a city basketball league to be
sponsored by the high school athletic department.  The league will be comprised of four teams; namely, the
Young Men’s club, Cain’s “Our Gang,” Patterson’s Oils, and Finnane’s Grocery.  The games will be played every
Tuesday night with the admission price set at five and ten cents.  The Young Men’s Club will clash with Cain’s “Our
Gang” at 7:30 p.m. Tuesday followed by another contest between Finnane’s Grocery and Patterson’s Oils.

70 Years Ago (1942):  Last Monday afternoon the recently purchased fire truck, the dream of the townships of
Porter, Union and Center, along with the City of Evansville became a realization.  With the purchase of this new
modern fire-fighter, which consists of a 1942 Chevrolet truck chassis with the equipment for fire-fighting being
furnished by Peter Pirsch and Sons company of Racine.  This equipment of the very latest type, including a 500-
gallon tank also carrying 1,000 feet of 1 1/2 inch hose.  This equipment will serve this fire-fighting truck about five
times as much fire defense as the old truck.  The new fire truck will be housed in the city hall fire station.

60 Years Ago (1952):  With the excavation completed and the foundations in for the new bank building, the
management of the Union Bank & Trust Company this week announced detailed plans for the superstructure
itself.  The new building, the most modern bank building in Wisconsin, will replace the old structure which has
stood on the site for more than eighty years.  

50 Years Ago (1962):   Pleasant Prairie Community Club will meet Thursday with Mrs. Fred Abey.  Mrs. Kenneth
Dunbar will be co-hostess.  Miss Ruth Ann Robinson, who will be married Jan. 20, will be honored with a bridal
shower.

40 Years Ago (1972):  Those attending the regular school board meeting Monday night heard Jr. High School
principal, John Benson, propose a “Middle School” for Evansville, which would include sixth, seventh and eighth
grades.  This would be accomplished in the fall of 1972 and would incorporate the sixth grade into the Jr. High
Bldg.  The aim according to Benson is “to serve the education needs of the in between ages better and provide
coordinator of curriculum.”

30 Years Ago (1982):  Record cold temperatures swooped down on Evansville Saturday creating wind chill factors
of 75 below.  Eight people in four passenger cars, and an oil truck, faced a chilling experience Sunday, after their
vehicles became stranded by a four to five foot drift on County T, at the junction of County C.  The county V-plows
had been pulled off the road.  Through the use of the CB radio in the oil truck, communication was made with
Wayne Disch who was about to contact the Evansville police.  Officers Tom Norby and Jeff Tomlin braved the
elements and went out to rescue the people and brought them back to Evansville.  Six of the people stayed
overnight in St. John’s Lutheran Church where Police Chief Richard Luers brought cots and blankets.  People
living near the church brought sandwiches and Mrs. Phyllis Garbrecht brought chili.  One couple stayed in town
with friends.  

20 Years Ago (1992):  St. John’s Lutheran Church is opening their Community Care Closet beginning this
Thursday.  For those unable to come in at that time, special arrangements can be made by calling Berna
Burnham or Ann Erbs.  The opening of the Care Closet is a first for Evansville.  Hopefully, it will answer a need in
Evansville and the area.

10 years ago (2002):  With the deadline of Jan. 2 over for the declaration of candidacy, the following will be on the
ballot this coming April:  Mayor Steven DiSalvo is not seeking re-election; incumbent council members, Janis
Ringhand, and Paul Baker are running for Mayor.


In Review
Third Week of January 1872-2002

140 Years Ago (1872):  Several sleigh loads from Evansville joined with old friends, relatives and acquaintances
of Mr. B. S. Hoxie and wife, of Cooksville, on the occasion of their twentieth anniversary wedding day.  An elegant
China tea set was presented.  The gifts were wholly a surprise, but received with becoming grace and
thankfulness.  The bridegroom presented his lady with a silver plated set of tea knives.  When the table was
cleared of precious wares, it was reset with the substantials of life, in a beautiful manner, oysters, cakes and bon
bons crowned the ample board in the most inviting profusion.  Free jokes and wise repartees, were indulged
adlibitum.  The evening opened with a blinding snow storm, but soon cleared away, and with the shining moon,
rendered the home journey, though a little cold, most delightfully pleasant.  

130 Years Ago (1882):  Married.  On the 17th of Jan., 1882, at the bride’s residence, by Rev. F. M. Washburn,
Cyrus J. Mitchell and Mrs. Amanda E. Cornelius, both of Evansville, Rock Co., Wis.

120 Years Ago (1892):  Magnolia:  The number on the sick list is still increasing.  Among those who have been
afflicted with the grip are B. P. Hess, Frank Hess, E. Robinson, Wm. Lange, Frank Lee and family.  These are all
getting better at present and will soon give room for others.  

110 Years Ago (1902):  Mr. Chas. Doolittle and family will soon return to this city, and Mr. Doolittle will resume his
former position in the Grange clothing store, which Mr. Truax has filled with the best of satisfaction of late, but
prefers to go into the clothing business for himself in Sharon.  Although we shall regret the departure of Mr. and
Mrs. Truax, we shall be pleased to have Mr. Doolittle and his family return.

100 Years Ago (1912):  The death of Mrs. Sarah Wright Andrews which occurred Monday morning, Jan. 15 was
not unexpected.  For seven years she had suffered from Bright’s disease.  She was born in Barkstone,
Leicestershire, England, October 15, 1828.  At the age of 20 she came with her parents to America.  In the year
1850 she was married to John C. Andrews.  Mrs. Andrews has been an occupant of the family residence [262
West Church Street] in this city since 1868 when the family moved here for the improved school facilities.  

90 Years Ago (1922):  The recent transfer of the church in Rutland from the United Brethren in Christ to the
Rutland Center Cemetery Association, has caused a great amount of interest and a number of persons have
inquired about the history of the church.  As far as we can learn, the church was built in the year of 1852, by the
United Brethren in Christ and is one of the oldest churches in Dane county.  The lumber from which the church
was built was part taken from the neighboring woods and sawed into lumber at the local mill on the David Anthony
farm.  The rest was hauled by ox teams from Stoughton, as that was the nearest railroad at that time.  [Note:  this
church is located north of Evansville, in Dane County, on Hwy. 14, west side of the road.  The exterior of the
building has been renovated, reroofed and repainted.   The interior of the building is being renovated by
volunteers.  An open house is planned for late summer 2012.  For more information about this church go to this
website:  http://www.rutlandchurch.org ]

80 Years Ago (1932):  “In the Land of the Incas” will be the subject of an interesting lecture to be given here at 8 p.
m. Friday at the Congregational church auditorium by Wilbur S. Tupper, Los Angeles, former Evansville boy who
is now internationally known traveler and lecturer.  Mr. Tupper, who is travelling with the Lecture Service Bureau of
New York City, will arrive here from Los Angeles tonight and while in the city will be a guest of his sister, Mrs.
Frank Bullard and Mrs. O. C. Colony.  He will leave Evansville Sunday for a lecture engagement in Minneapolis on
Monday, after which he will leave for an extended trip to Mexico in preparation for another lecture on that country.  

70 Years Ago (1942):  Pupils of the Tupper and White Star school districts presented a program over WCLO,
Janesville, during the regular school time music program period, under the direction of Mrs. Charlene Whipple.  
The entertainment was followed by a conducted tour through the Shurtleff Ice Cream plant.  Mrs. Whipple, as a
Rock County supervising teacher, gives instruction in nine rural schools in this locality and also in the village
schools of Albany and Orfordville.  Plans are being made this week for a similar program to be presented on next
Monday’s broadcast by pupils of the Moore, Pleasant Prairie and Pleasant Hill schools.   

60 Years Ago (1952):  Borger Hanson, Jr., is among the University of Wisconsin students completing their courses
at the end of this semester and will be graduated at exercises to be held in Memorial Union Saturday afternoon.  
His parents, Mr. and Mrs. Borger Hanson, Sr., Evansville, will attend the program.  Borger Jr. has accepted a
position in Menasha and will begin duties there Feb. 1.  Mrs. Hanson, formerly Susan Cain, will be graduated from
the University of Wisconsin in June.

50 Years Ago (1962):   A representative of Mead and Hunt, a Madison consulting engineering firm, was in
Evansville last Friday exploring possibilities for setting up public bomb shelters as part of the regional Civil
Defense effort.  Working for the Navy in this project, Bill Strand, the engineering representative, investigated many
of our local buildings in his preliminary planning.

40 Years Ago (1972):  The Union Bank and Trust Co., Evansville re-elected all officers and directors as follows:  
L. P. Eager, Sr., president and director; F. T. Durner and L. P. Eager, Jr., Vice Presidents and Directors; Alan S.
Eager, cashier and director; Robert Brunsvold, Mrs. Herbert Christensen and Mrs. Dan Holzem, assistant cashiers
and Mrs. H. M. Brunsell, director.  

30 Years Ago (1982):  Country roads got the drift again this past weekend when high winds blocked the north-
south roads.  School was opened later on Monday to allow for clearing the roads for the school buses.  Additional
snow Sunday afternoon added to the woes of the bitter cold Arctic air, noted again for the second weekend in a
row.  

20 Years Ago (1992):  Cadet Nathan J. Edwards, son of Mr. and Mrs. John Edward, Evansville, received a $1,000
scholarship from Armed Forces Insurance.  Edwards is presently serving as Det 925’s chief of Public Affairs and is
majoring in Electrical Engineering with a GPA of 3.98.  Edwards is studying at UW-Madison in ROTC and will
graduate in August and receive his commission in December of 1992.  

10 years ago (2002):  Through the help of donations from Evansville organizations, area businesses and
residents, Evansville Firefighters have purchased the needed Talisman Thermal Imager.  Although all the funds
needed were not received yet, the camera became available.  


In Review
Fourth Week of January 1872-2002

140 Years Ago (1872):  Hayward has commenced filling his ice house.  The large crystal masses of pure, solid ice
are nearly two feet in thickness.

130 Years Ago (1882):  Mr. Dow of Cooksville sold 33 hogs to Johnson & Stevens Brothers Monday whose
average weight was 425 pounds.  One hog tipped the beam at just 700 pounds.  This is said to have been the
nicest lot of hogs that usually come to this market.  He marketed a lot of stock at the same time, for which in all
Messrs Johnson & Stevens Brothers drew their check for $1,122.67.

120 Years Ago (1892):  Ice cutting on Lake Leota, the past week, for Mr. Pratt’s cold storage and the creamery
was carried on pretty lively.  John Reilly had the contract for the storage and Chas. Winship that for the creamery.  
It required about 300 tons for each and each man had five or six teams running from early morning until a late
hour at night hauling ice.  The competent number of men were kept on the ice sawing and splitting off the chunks
of congealed Leota, while men were employed with long poles with sharpened steel points in the end, to shove the
large slippery cubes into sleighs to be hauled away.  The business is not considered perilous, but occasionally a
man makes a misstep and takes a frigid bath.  Mr. S. L. Cook owns the mill pound as well as the mill.  

110 Years Ago (1902):  Mr. Brown, the waterworks contractor is spending a few days in Chicago.  An important
part of the machinery of the electric lighting plant was melted Sunday evening leaving some of the churches in
total darkness for a short time and we had no street lights since, but it is expected that it will be repaired and all
running order this Tuesday evening.  

100 Years Ago (1912):  Married.  At the home of the groom in the town of Brooklyn by Rev. H. J. Kohlhepp of this
city, Mr. Earl Allen to Miss Barbara Elmer, both of the town of Brooklyn.  Mr. Allen is a son of Ethan Allen, a well-
known and prosperous farmer of Brooklyn township, while the bride is the daughter of John Elmer, another farmer
skilled in the products of the soil.  Mr. and Mrs. Allen left on the early afternoon train for Chicago, and will be at
home to their friends on the Bert Lay farm after March 1.

90 Years Ago (1922):  Superintendent Waddell and the Evansville Board of Education has decided upon
Thursday, January 26th as the date when the new grade building shall be officially dedicated.  The new
gymnasium will be made into an auditorium by being filled with chairs, where people may sit in comfort.  During the
program, the keys of the building will be formally and officially tendered to the Board of Education by the
contractor who constructed the school, J. P. Cullen of Janesville.

80 Years Ago (1932):  Two young Milwaukee youths were arrested by Chief Fred Gillman and Deputy Cal
Broughton when their car was found to contain several gallons of moonshine, five and one half gallons of alcohol
and gin.  Ralph J. Nye, enforcement officer for this district was notified by the Evansville officers and two Madison
prohibition agents were sent to bring the youths to Madison.  They informed the officers that they had never been
mixed up in the liquor business before and didn’t know “why we came clear out here on a wild goose chase.”  They
were taken to the Dane County jail.  Robert Stoner, 20, West Allis, was bound over to federal court on liquor
transportation and possession charges.  Transportation charges against George Sonderecker, 22, Milwaukee,
were dismissed.

70 Years Ago (1942):  George Brigham and Son, local livestock dealers, have been awarded the honor of hauling
more livestock to the Equity Co-operative Livestock sales association in Milwaukee than any other trucker during
1941.  This is the second consecutive year that the local truckers have received the honor.  During the year of
1941, Brigham and son hauled a total of 157.23 carloads of livestock.  In computing livestock from a truck to a
carload basis, 25 head of cattle, 100 calves, 75 hogs and 100 sheep are figures as a carload.  

60 Years Ago (1952):  First Lt. Roger S. Gray, son of Dr. and Mrs. R. J. Gray, Evansville, was among 70 medical
officers, including seven foreign officers from opposite sides of the world, who were recently graduated from the
Air Force School of Aviation Medicine at San Antonio, Texas.  

50 Years Ago (1962):   The Pet Milk co. has announced that it will close its New Glarus evaporated milk plant and
its Evansville receiving station.  The Evansville receiving station employed 10 people who come from the local
community, Footville and Orfordville.  To assist them in the adjustment which will result from closing the station,
many will receive a severance payment from the company, as well as any earned vacation pay.  

40 Years Ago (1972):  Six rules were adopted at the Evansville High School faculty meeting.  They are:  no card
playing, no gum chewing, no eating, no music, no sleeping, and only class and library books will be allowed,
during the tutorial study times.  

30 Years Ago (1982):   Wayne Ballard, Superintendent of Water and Light said about 15 farms and several trailer
homes on Highway 213 were without power for a half an hour.  Wind on ice-wires caused the short power outage.  
A small amount of ice deforms the wires and the wind causes the wire to gallop, causing a outage.

20 Years Ago (1992):  Evansville police officers, Scott A. McElroy and Sergeant Arthur E. Phillips were recognized
and awarded written commendations by Police Chief Chuck DiPiazza on Wednesday of last week.  The Chief
announced that the two were honored for reviving two youths, Dion and Tai Liphant, from Beloit, ages 6 and 8.  
The two youngsters were suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning on Sunday, Jan. 19th.  The two youngsters
were in their father’s truck parked at the All ‘N One.  Officer McElroy, while off duty, had stopped at the store.  A
brother of the youngsters entered the store and requested that the clerk call a doctor.  Officer McElroy followed
the brother back to the car and was advised by the father that the children were possibly suffering from carbon
monoxide poisoning, as the muffler had fallen off near Madison.   Officer McElroy and the father took the children
to the City Hall Police Department where Office Phillips and McElroy gave the children oxygen and they were
revived.  

10 years ago (2002):  Committee Chairman Nancy Greve reported to the Evansville community School Board
about the newly formed Naming Committee.  Committee members, Vicki Lecy Luebke, Jolene Hammond, Renee
Bjugstad, Nancy Brummond and Cathy Robinson are asking the community for suggestions for names for the
athletic field and the new intermediate school.